Huitziláihuitl (reigned 1395-1417), the Aztec emperor recognizable by his symbol of the hummingbird with white feathers, sits on his throne at right.
Itzcóatl (reigned 1427–40), whose name means obsidian serpent, was the fourth king of the Aztecs. He is dressed in the clothes of the highest priests and is credited with destroying the old Nahuatl records, consolidating legal authority in a totalitarian leader, and with establishing the practice of “flowery wars,” which were waged to attain human sacrifices. It is speculated that the institutionalization of the “flowery wars” was the foundation of Aztec expansion.
Chimalpopoca (reigned 1417–27), whose name means smoking shield, was the third emperor of the Aztecs. He is depicted here dressed in the clothes of the highest priests, again a reflect of the theocratic nature of the Aztec confederacy.
Huitziláihuitl reigned from about 1395 to 1417 CE. Huitziláihuitl’s name is derived from the hummingbird symbol of the Aztec god Huitzilopochtli (the god of the sun and war).
Acamapichtli was the first tlatoani, or ruler, of the Triple Alliance (the Aztec) sitting as head of the Mexica-Tenochtitlan. His name means “handful of arrows” or “handful of reeds”, and is credited with being the founder of the Aztec imperial dynasty.